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Granada History

Granada city was founded between Xalteva, and the Cocibolba or the Great Nicaragua Lake, by the Spanish conqueror Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba in the 1524 year, creating one of the colonial settlements more ancient of the American Continent.

By the time, the dirianes, were living a group of chorotegas in Xalteva, an Indian race of warriors and artists, they had a lot of knowledge about Astronomy, Botany and Medicine, they were a territory of a cacique and also there was a merchant social class. The indigenous province ha the name of Nequecheri.

As it says: the Nicaraguan historian Jorge Eduardo Arellano, from historical beginnings of Granada, it distinguishes by the elements fusion in the construction of the city and this one as a strategic base of the future explorations of the drain or San Juan River. These discoveries conduced to establish fluvial route to the Atlantic that sealed the historical and geographic destiny of Granada, giving to it a harbour quality which never lose. It has been part of its splendor and tragedy. The poet and journalist from Nicaragua, Pablo Antonio Cuadra calls to Granada siren-city, because one part it is the urban in firm land and the other half opened to the Great Lake or Sweet Sea as it was baptized by Gil Gonzales Davila, one of the first Spanish explorers in 1523.

During the colonial period, Granada was one of the most important commercial harbours in Central America, as the same time start the construction of the city, directed by the urban architectural tradition of the Spanish of the great plaza and the powers.

In the sixties, at the beginning of the XVII century, the commercial culmination makes Granada an important city. The twin city of Granada, Leon of Nicaragua was destroyed in the year of 1610 by an eruption of the Momotombo volcano, and because of this Granada Became more important, also the tobacco and cacao plantations were growing the cattle farms. The Granada Commerce was with Cartagena, Guatemala, San Salvador, Panama and Perù.

The commerce increase by the route of the lake and the San Juan river, the Spain rivaltries with England, Holland and France made of Granada a victim of the least three attacks of pirates that destroyed completely the city. In June 29 1665, Jean David, pirate of Jamaica, plunders the city without resistence. In 1670, the pirate Gallardillo, that really was an Indian who was serving the Emglish men, he attacks Granada, mocking the Spanish defense.

To protect Nicaraga's town, the colonial authorities build te Immaculada Concepcion fortress on the San Juan river in the year 1675. So that the incursion of piracy ara warned and also from English that wantes to become the owner of the route.

The french pirat William Dampier pillage and sat on fire the city on April 8 in 1685. The earthquakes in 1633, raised the San Juan river trench n some place of this course, so much that the communications of Granada with the Atlantic was impossible. In 1751 Luis Diez Navarro, designed La Polvora fort at the east entrance of the city In 1789, builds the fortress n the lake coast and the San Pablo fort in one of the little island.

At the beginning of the XIX century the city of Granada has a regular commerce with the Antille. It exeriments short periods of culmination, between periodical armed movments, first against the spanish empire (1812) and the mexican in 1823.

The political movements in favor of the indipendence were soffocated by the authorities of the colony. Then, where the creoles that dispute the power in the new state, take the people to the civil war from 1824 and 1828.

In 1854 there was a civis war and the city is besieged by the people from Leon, the site lasted almost nine months. Granada was liberated by Fruo Chamorro. Beetween 1854 and 1857, the people of Nicaragua , confronted a civil war that loaded to a national war with terrible consequences, so much that the nationalist contracted north American soldiers, to stuggle in favor of the liberals, the ones that came to fight were called freebootors, because they came in the same way as the pirates and corsairs.

In November 1856, the filibustier (a foreign militar or soldier) Henningsen set in fire the city, causing enormus ruins to the buldings of the time, the Walker's host in their retrat, left a label with the famous "here was Granada". After the national war, in Granada city starts the recostructions stage and it's used as political capital settlement until 1893, when il looses its political egemony becouse a liberal revolution headed by the general Josè Santos Zelaya. During the period of te called thirty year of the consevatives governement the infrastructure advantages compensating at commercial levels, they were all modern and made by the conservatives. Granadfa distinguished as a conservative city hasbeen protagonist of political struggles between conservatives and liberals, in a political conflict, thet produced the Historical Parallels for the conquest power.


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